SIBM Bengaluru

Perspectiva

Perspectiva : (ISSN # 2394 9961, e ISSN: 2454-7034) :

A Case Research Journal is an official journal of Symbiosis Institute of Business Management, Bengaluru (a constituent of Symbiosis International University, Pune). The main objective of this journal is to provide a platform for case instructors, whether academics and industry practitioners to conceptualize and structure their ideas and problems on different issues related to business domain. The Journal invites academicians and industry practitioners to publish field research focused real time cases in the organizations dealing with varied issues related to business disciplines including strategic management, finance, economics, entrepreneurship marketing, organizational behavior/human resources, operations management, MIS etc., These cases should not have been published previously, should provide a fresh perspective and add to the topical pool of cases for teaching purposes. The Journal also invites articles on case study research including studying/reviewing case methodology at length. All manuscripts are peer – reviewed in a blind folded process by the expert reviewers in the selected domain. The Journal publishes 1 issue per year and each issue will have four to five original teaching, research, or analytical case studies. Teaching cases would be written with a Teaching Note (TN)/Instructor Manual(IM). Even though the TN/IM will not be published, it is necessary for the submission to be considered for the review process . The teaching note will be made available to the interested faculty on request by mailing us at perspectiva@sibm.edu.in.

Perspectiva, is committed to meeting and upholding the standard of ethical behaviour at all stages of the publication process. The Journal encourages the best standards of publication ethics and takes all possible measures against publication malpractices.
The journal is indexed in Index Copernicus and J-Gate Publishing.

Publisher Details:

Symbiosis Institute of Business Management, Bengaluru (Constituent of Symbiosis International University, Pune)
#95/1, 95/2, Electronic City, Phase-1, Hosur Road,
Bengaluru-560 100.
Email: perspectiva@sibm.edu.in
Phone: 080-6713 9535 / 6713 9536
FAX: 080-6713 9537

Perspectiva - Vol I (ISSN # 2394 9961)

The Damn Lucky Fellow and the 3 Housewives
Authors Medha S. Joshi, Srividhya Sridharan
Abstract It was a hot sunny day in April 2014. Over 2000 protestors gathered outside the sprawling DLF office in Connaught place, New Delhi. Slogans were shouted against DLF and its chairman, Mr. K.P. Singh. The protestors had booked residential apartments worth Rs.10million and Rs.40million in DLF’s Capital Greens project and were livid that the project was unduly delayed. DLF’s office issued a statement attributing the delay to the Delhi Government labor department for undertaking the safety audit. However six months later, in October 2014, the SEBI slapped a ban on DLF. The company and its directors were banned from raising money from the capital market for 3 years on account of the misstatement and non-disclosures in Initial Public Offer prospectus issued in 2007. The stocks thus rallied under the news into a downward spin hitting an all-time low of 104.95. Everyone wondered how the real estate giant once coined “Damn Lucky Fellow” for DLF would wriggle out of this tight spot. No access to the capital markets would inevitably mean a severe cash crunch. This would in turn lead to project delays on DLF sites across the country. While everyone waited with fingers crossed to witness the tsunami effects of this ban, let’s have a look at the facts of the case.  
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Indian retail banking: Understanding customers’ expectations
Authors Rajesh Panda, Biranchi Narayan Swar
Abstract Indian banking industry is getting competitive day by day due to entrants of new foreign banks and new licenses released by RBI for domestic players. Banking in India has evolved from offering mere deposits to range of product and services. At the same time different banks creating various avenues like mobile banking, online banking etc. to enhance their respective customer experiences. Similarly, the customer bases of these banks are different, that’s why they have different priorities in terms of service experiences. So, the case tries to bring out various insights into the priority of customers for different types of banks and thus help the bank to re-orient their strategy by using IP analysis.
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Mansi Shah- Should I use Case Method/ Lecture to teach Accounting?
Authors Salim Shamsher, Mansi Shah
Abstract This case attempts to describe how an inexperienced teacher, Mansi Shah prepares for her first class where she is to teach an introductory course in accounting. The case goes on to provide insights into Case versus lecture mode of teaching. It then focuses on the dialogue between Mansi and one of her Faculty colleague, Prof Salim. Through such a dialogue the nuances and significance of case teaching are bought out. The case then provides two exhibits, the first one titled “15 Hints for Effective Case Teaching”. This exhibit attempts to bring out the essentials required for preparing to teach a Case. The second exhibit titled “Case learning tips for students” is intended to serve as a guideline for the student to enable him/her to effectively learn from the use of Cases.
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Bringing Out the Golden Spark in Silver Spark – A Lean Intervention
Authors Anand Deshpande, Pooja Gupta
Abstract Silver Spark Apparel Ltd is a fully owned subsidiary of Raymonds Ltd and produces some of the best known apparel brands in India. The company owns and runs three apparel plants in Bengaluru. The case starts with a scenario where the head of the plant, Ashish Grover is feeling that despite all the successes achieved in the past, the plant needs improvement. Although the plant was deemed to be very efficient and had recently received the best workplace award, Ashish was not happy. The delivery times were a bit stretched and the factory seemed to lack a smooth production flow. At this time, he met Anand Deshpande, a LEAN specialist. Ashish invites Anand to his factory and asks him to give opinion as to how the process can be improved using LEAN Management techniques.
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RAZZMATAZZ-Pioneering Event Management in South India -Run by a Woman who means Business
Authors V.V.Ajith Kumar
Abstract Dr. Meenakshi Anantram quit her post-doctoral research with the CSIR in 1994 to follow her heart’s desire for a career in entertainment and started RAZZMATAZZ, one of the first few event management companies in the country. RAZZMATAZZ is a member of the Event & Entertainment Management Association. Razzmatazz organizes and delivers event management at an unsurpassed level providing national and international customers with a wealth of knowledge and experience to ensure their events are truly memorable. Her journey started with the launch of Coca Cola in Visakhapatnam for which she herself pitched in and convinced the client to get the event. From then she never looked back and she got the opportunity to organize various events for companies like Kellogg’s, BPL, HUL, Reliance Industries, HSBC, etc. She has anchored more than a thousand stage shows and has organized more than 3000 events in various cities across India. She has encountered many problems but faced them boldly to be in this position today. She started with event management and then slowly entered into protocol functions, award ceremonies, theme parties, birthday parties, exhibitions, product launches, weddings, conferences and so on. Dr. Meenakshi has not done any MBA but learned the hard way how to sell an idea to the client, and also the other logistics involved in event management. She feels she has a long way to go and is very happy that her passion and hobby has become her livelihood.
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Gypsum Handling” in a Process Plant
Authors D. Subramaniam
Abstract The case discusses about a fertilizer Plant producing fertilizer with two main intermediary Plants of Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid which are normal inputs for the manufacture of Fertilizer as they provide the nutrient of “S” (sulphur) and “P” phosphorous needed in a fertilizer. It is also common that when Phosphoric Acid is produced, a bye product in the form of ‘Gypsum’ is also generated. Though this by-product does not go into manufacture of the fertilizer, it comes out as a waste but has certain useful applications in Cement industry, agriculture etc. which can be commercially leveraged. The focus in the case is about the way this by-product (Gypsum) is handled by the factory as it has the potential to pollute the environment especially the land and thereby water as well. The case while focusing on the core issue of environmental impact also touches upon the challenges the industry face when there is an expansion takes place in the form of a project involving capital expenditure. The case emphasizes about an existence of an opportunity arising out of such challenges. The product ‘Gypsum’ which posed such a challenging issue can also be exploited commercially to the advantage of the organization as it has certain useful applications in other sectors.
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International Logistics Operations at a Manufacturing firm – An Analysis
Authors V G Venkatesh, A.Vidyasagar
Abstract Benso Garmenting is a young growing garment business firm for apparel products in Southern India. It is acting as a trading agent as well as a manufacturing firm for leading brands from U K and Europe by controlling entire product life cycle i.e. right from conceptualization (design) to the delivery planning at the customer end. Over the years, they become very efficient in managing the products technically. Nevertheless as a new entrant for the full package solutions, the company was grappling with the issues in operations especially in Planning and Control for the international movements of their cargo. The commercial professional firmly believed that by having right commercial knowledge at the ground level, the company would be able to save 3-4 % of the product cost. He was also keen in looking for the solutions through re-engineering the entire planning and operations procedures, right from choosing the clearing and forwarding agent (CFA) and engaging the carrier company for the marine transports. In fact, the firm had too many stakeholders in the cargo movements. Further, there were some coordination issues with the shipping company in terms of planning and for the customs clearances. The company also initiated improvement projects in the areas of cargo planning and marine routing, eventually willing to redesign the logistics operations. The case study will discuss in detail about the problems in planning international movements and how did they revisit their operations to save the lead time as well as the overall costs, right from packing operations and making it ready for the logistics movements.
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Career Prescription: The HR Fast Tracker
Authors Nishant Khandelwal
Abstract This case research article is an original account of an HR professional’s behavior leading to functional outperformance. It records her professional behaviour and performances in a manufacturing company which is part of a reputed Indian MNC having businesses across various industries. After obtaining her MBA degree from a modest B School, she joined as a management trainee in this engineering company. She is now leading HR function of an important & complex business vertical, responsible for about 700+ Engineers and Managers. She has been consistently rated best in successive appraisals and has been rewarded with new and higher responsibilities every second year. She got promoted thrice in six years period. In her personal life, she got married few years back and is a mother of a baby now. All identities of organization, individuals & events mentioned in this case research article are altered to maintain anonymity without compromising on the integrity. Any similarity would be purely coincidental.
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Perspectiva - Vol II (ISSN # 2394 9961, e ISSN: 2454-7034)

Boreout Syndrome
Authors Dr. Radha R
Abstract The popular belief is that employees suffer from burnout which indicates overworking and over stretching of employees at the work place. It is an established fact that burnout creates depression, anxiety and stress disorders in employees. But, the recent studies are indicating that contrary to the popular belief majority of the employees are not stressed or over worked. But, they suffer from bore out-underworked, under challenged and frustrated. Bore out is the new office epidemic which causes demotivation to the employees. The effects of bore out are dissatisfaction with the job, weariness at work place, loss of zest or enthusiasm for life, useful office time frittered away in personal work and so on. Surveys undertaken recently have indicated that nearly 35% of the employees do not have enough work to do and these under challenged and under stretched employees nearly spend two hours of the office time every day to attend to personal matters. This problem of bore out affects both the employees as well as robs the employer of productivity at work place. The employers have started recognizing this issue of bore out and are trying to address this problem. This case study is in this direction to bring to light this growing yet unknown problem of bore out, how to recognize bore out and how the organizations can work out strategies to save the employees from this bore out trap.
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Do or Die: The Dilemma of Aalaya Logistics
Authors Padmanabhan N S
Abstract Mother India throughout the years has been a homeland of successful family owned businesses. Companies from Tata, Birla to Reliance all have the label of a family owned business. We are always audacious about the successes but we seldom care about the vast majority which fail doing business. The use of rule – of – thumb management has affected their business in the long – run. Some remain in limelight for some time and suddenly vanish from the scene. They fail miserably in forecasting the business environment as well as decision making. This case discuss on one such company which is reeling under pressure of soaring cost and plummeting profits due to some poor decisions taken by the promoters. Sachin Iyer gazed at his watch. It showed 10.30 pm. He knew that he would be late today also. He was alone in the five-storied new corporate office of Aalaya Logistics at Thrissur a small city in Kerala. He was rather perplexed to see the heap of files on his table. For the past few days, he and his team had a tiresome work. He was annoyed by the way his uncles were managing business in a thoroughly unprofessional way. He is supposed to present a revival plan next week for the company whose profit is bleeding since 2010. He was aware that the ecosystem is more complex due the surge in competition from Multi National Corporation (MNC). The whole task is a challenge as well as opportunity to prove himself. Sachin joined Aalaya Logistics as Chief Executive Officer (CEO) two months before. After graduating from a Tier – I Business School in India, he was heading the retail channel operations of a leading MNC logistics provider at Chennai. He was summoned by the Iyer brothers to help them resurrect their business. He belonged to the second generation of the Iyer family, which was running the business for the past 15 years.
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Kotak Mahindra Bank and ING Vysya Bank Merger
Authors Dr. Asha Nadig
Abstract Consolidation of business entities is a world-wide phenomenon. One of the tools for consolidation is mergers and acquisitions. The quest for growth and the ever-changing dynamic business environment makes Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) a frequent phenomenon in corporate circles. The M&A in financial sector of India are driven with the objective of leveraging the synergies expected to arise out of the consolidation.
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Measuring Performance: Search for Elixir
Authors Jaidev Poomath
Abstract Worldwide, major corporations are in the process of revamping performance appraisal processes. Deloitte, Accenture and GE are some of the companies which are driving the change. Performance review or appraisal processes have caused heartburn to many an employee. The annual exercise is detested and even feared. Often doubts were raised with respect to their effectiveness. Most companies follow a bell-curve rating process to evaluate performance of their workers. The rating process often leaves a bad taste and causes employee disengagement. It is wondered if an annual exercise will suffice in modern, dynamic business world, where needs and demands of the customers change by the hour. Employees need and seek real time feedback from their superiors. Matters are made further complex by the fact that there are no real mechanisms to measure effectiveness of feedback given. Performance review systems are designed so as to eliminate bias and subjective analysis. When superiors conduct reviews mechanically, just to comply with processes, objectives are often sacrificed. Companies with flawed performance appraisal processes find it tough to take critical business decisions and justify them later. Transparency in operations is the need of the hour. If employees perceive lay-offs as insensitive and illogical, then a faulty performance appraisal system may be to blame. Employees become insecure if they feel that they are not valued at work. In a country like India, where emotions at work are not rare, pressure and stress caused maybe significant enough to dent the reputation of an organisation. Even though latest developments in this field bring hope, it is feared that these will remain nothing but lip service or just hype.
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Sherlock and the Capital Structure Maze
Authors Dr. Madhvi Sethi, Prof. Pooja Gupta
Abstract The case revolves around an entrepreneur’s dilemma regarding funding of his expansion plans. The CEO, Ashish Awasthy, has grand expansion plans for his consumer durable company. He is looking at different options to raise finance to fund this expansion. At the presentation for the investment bankers regarding the company’s expansion plans, Ashish overhears a couple of investment bankers discussing the virtues of debt financing against those of equity financing. Sherlock an acclaimed investment banker after listening to Ashish’s future expansion plans, believes that the best way forward for the company was to raise funds through equity. Moriarty, a competitor of Sherlock, argues that Sherlock’s viewpoint is incorrect and debt will be a much better alternative to equity. In this tussle, Ashish is perplexed and speaks to his friend Mycroft, adviser to RBI governor as to what is the best way to go. Mycroft challenges Sherlock and Moriarty to back their claims of equity versus debt with data provided by him. In order to make the challenge lucrative, Mycroft promises to give the responsibility of raising funds to the investment banker who would be able to back up their claims with the live data. The case revolves around the analysis involved in understanding the capital structure puzzle for Indian companies.
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The Neighbourhood Store - Seeking Bigger Basket Sizes
Authors Prof. Grishma Padhye, Dr. Sonam Mansukhani
Abstract India’s modern retail market stood at US Dollar (USD) 27 billion in 2012 and is expected to grow to USD 220 billion by 2020, with a Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 14.9% (FICCI, 2012). Though food and grocery comprises 60% of the total retail sales, it contributes to only about 11% of the modern retail sales (IBEF, 2013). Supermarkets comprise 70% of the total modern grocery retailing formats in India (Bose, 2012). Despite this, not all supermarkets perform well. For instance in Hyderabad, while few regional supermarket chains such as Ratnadeep, Ghanshyam have added more outlets, few national supermarket chains such as Spencer’s, Food World have closed down or relocated few of their stores (Mukherjee, 2012). In 2012, Mr. Narang established a supermarket known as ‘Neighbourhood store’ in Pune, India. Post three years of full operation, this store was enmeshed in problems due to a poor customer base, low basket sizes and moderate revenue figures. To worsen matters, high rent expenditure and high cost stuck in inventory took a toll on the business. Against this backdrop, competitors such as S-Mart (hypermarket) and Patel stores (a small mom and pop ‘kirana’ store) flourished. The case includes data that can trigger off rich classroom discussions about a) Comparative analysis of Neighbourhood Store with its direct competitors – S-Mart and Patel stores – in terms of performance, merchandise mix, and service offerings, b) Analysis of the Neighbourhood Store’s key customer profiles and finding the reason for their not shopping the entire grocery basket from the Store c) Recommending changes in the merchandise mix and the service offerings at the Neighbourhood Store in order to increase the basket sizes of each of the Store’s customer segments.
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Women’s Cell facilitates Gender Inclusivity: A Case Study from the Education sector
Authors Dr. Tanushri Banerjee, Dr. Ritu Sharma
Abstract This case study discusses the structure and significance of Gender Cell (often referred as Women’s Cell) when formalized in an organization. Further to measure the impact of the formalized Women’s Cell in nurturing gender inclusive growth and development. This Case Study narrates the structure and functionalities of the Women’s Cell in an educational institution. Additionally, it measures its role in fostering gender inclusivity in organizations. The research study has been conducted at an educational institution where there exists a formalized Women’s Cell. In order to understand the significance and functioning of the Women’s Cell, data has been collected by conducting semi-structured interviews with the male and female employees, faculty members and students of the institution. Respondents’ answers have been further analyzed to measure the impact of the Women’s Cell in fostering the culture of gender equality and inclusivity within the institution. The findings of this Case study reinforce the notion that Women’s Cell can act as a medium to create a gender inclusive workforce in an educational institution. Additionally, they provide insights into the processes and systems that facilitate establishing and running the Women’s Cell.
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Perspectiva - Vol III (ISSN: 2394-9961, e-ISSN: 2454-7034)

A dream that turned into a nightmare: The story of a small Bank that aspired to be big
Authors Dr. Lishin M. Joshy
Abstract ABC Bank, a small old generation private sector bank established in the 1920s tried in vain to get on to the fast lane during the first decade of the twenty first century. What unfolded during those tumultuous years at ABC Bank is fodder for thought to analysts and management students alike. The Bank’s CEO who was of the view that big bang reforms are the way ahead for the Bank stepped on the gas to push things forward. He hired extensively, expanded the branch network and lent aggressively. However, there were many factors that pulled him back: the bank’s lethargic culture, aged workforce, vested interests of the trade unions, absence of deep pockets etc. The choices before him were tough: whether to go slow and steady or get propelled ahead? Whether to remain small in a niche market or grow at any cost? Whether to play it safe or take calculated risks? Whether to implement growth strategies that invite the wrath of the employees and the trade unions, or not? Whether to silently tolerate the inefficiencies of the older generation employees or try to squeeze out whatever is possible from them? A little more than 2 years later, the CEO has made an unceremonious exit and a new person has taken charge. He is facing even tougher challenges and has even more difficult decisions to make. The case can be used to teach Strategy, Human Resources Management, Organisational Culture, and Organisational change with special reference to resistance to change.
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Adoption of next generation robotics: A case study on Amazon
Authors Dr. Dhiraj Jain, Mr.Yuvraj Sharma
Abstract Robotics has opened up as a new business opportunity for both entrepreneurs and enterprises in the modern era. Most of the developed countries including Japan and the US have emphasizing on the use of robots to enhance productivity and improve the quality of products and processes. Changing life-style of people, exponential advancements in technology and retail innovation are encouraging both small and big enterprises to adopt robots to perform their day to day operations in a proficient manner. The following case talks about the use of the robotic muscle and computer- vision at Amazon. The retailer started its business as an online bookstore and later enhanced its product portfolio in order to meet the needs of a diverse population throughout the world. The case discusses the major issues faced by the US giant including the time spent on customer orders and preparation for shipping. The time spent was high leading to severe deficiencies and a created negative image of the enterprise in the minds of the customers. The present case also identifies the significant causes of deploying robotics by Amazon in its next generation warehouses for speedy product delivery. The case study also emphasizes the drastic changes occurring after the use of innovative technologies at the workplace. The study concludes with a brief note on the rise of the robots and its impact on bringing extreme changes in terms of improving the shipping network and quick delivery of its products to the customers.
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Asoles: The war over retention
Authors Mr. Aditya Kovvali, Mr. Yeshasv Bharghava
Abstract In 2016, Deloitte’s human capital trends reported that 86% of C-suite executives identified employee engagement and retention as very important. Employee retention has been a key challenge for human resource professionals because it is a financial drain and hampers productivity. It therefore becomes important to look at highly effective retention strategies to enable high productivity in the workplace. Traditional strategies of promotions, higher salaries etc. need to be exchanged for strategies that are more in touch with intangibles that no other competitor of your company can provide. With changing times and a younger demographic becoming a part of the workforce it is necessary for companies to challenge traditional policies to combat attrition and retain their key talent. By taking the case of Asoles, an online player in the focusing on footwear this case study uses the SAPLAP methodology to explore the various strategies used by the organization to ensure employee retention in the organization. Though struggling at first with profitability, with the involvement of their current CEO and his unique employee orientation, Asoles has become a runaway success with its strategies. These strategies have given the company the added benefit of goodwill in the industry, strong customer retention and great valuations. They have been on the cover of some of the most prominent magazines in the US and have been the subject to a major buyout worth over 200 million dollars. These strategies are not without their own their share of backlash with the organisation facing attrition due to the same strategies meant to engage employees at the workplace. Through this case study readers can identify existing winning strategies that are working for the company and even come up with strategies along similar lines to enable employees to become a principle focus of the company.
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Junnar Taluka Farmers Producers Company Limited A Case Study on Farmers Mobilization and Empowerment
Authors Dr. Shubhangi Salokhe
Abstract The case discusses about Farmers Producer Company. The main issue of the case is to develop an efficient agricultural marketing system for ensuring higher remuneration to the farmers. FPC offers several benefits to farmers and reduces their exploitation by middlemen and enables the farmers to get good price for their produce. But despite of all the hard work and efforts, the farmers hardly make a profit. They were exploited by middlemen, commission agents and traders. This is the success story of the FPC started by Mr. Shriram Gadhve, who is the leader of the Farmer Producer Organization (FPO) movement in Narayangaon. He decided to help farmers and took up the onus on himself to save these farmers from this crisis. He has taken initiative to start Farmer Producer Company namely the “Junnar Taluka Farmers Producer Company in Narayangaon. Many services are provided by the JTFPC to farmers for the promotion of agriculture industry and horticulture industry in the states. Company is helping farmers for crop production, crop protection and for exploring marketing platform for the members by doing value addition to their produce. JTFPC has broken the chain of middlemen who were exploiting the farmers and now helping them for direct marketing of agricultural produce and through this help they have changed financial condition and lifestyle of the farmers. Company has developed a wholesale market of tomatoes in Narayangaon. Today, Narayangaon is the largest open tomato auction market in the country.
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The Dilemma of the Warehouse Manager
Authors Dr .D.Subramaniam, Mr. A. Vidyasagar
Abstract The case discusses about the day today challenges of monitoring and ensuring the availability of fertilizers at various warehouses in various consumption destinations. The case highlights the common phenomenon of fertilizers running out of stock and trucks not being received with replenishment in time and logistics costs requiring to be monitored periodically. The case commenced with a narration of a telephonic call being received from the Depots about the alarming levels of low stocks and requiring urgent replenishment to avoid opportunity sale loss during the Kharif and Rabi Season. The case narrated the existing arrangement of annual contract with the transporters for movement of fertilizers and what the firm intended to do while finalizing the new contract for the next few years. This phase of the case brings out what one has to keep in mind when a new contract is getting negotiated and covered aspects such as budgeting, tendering process, negotiation of rates along with the terms and conditions etc. The entire case highlighted the pressure a warehouse manager has to go through in his functional area of day to day operations so that a student can get a feel of this functional role.
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Succession Planning- A Success Story – A case study of Skyline University College
Authors Dr. Ajith Kumar.V.V , Dr. Sudhakar Kota
Abstract Skyline University College was established in the year 1990 by Mr. Kamal Puri in Sharjah under the patronage of his highness, Dr. Sheikh Sultan Bin Mohammed Al Qassimi, member of the supreme council of the United Arab Emirates and ruler of Sharjah. Currently it is one of the premier higher educational institutions in the northern emirates offering undergraduate and post graduate degrees in business studies. SUC also offers various professional certificate courses from IATA, CTH, ACCA, CIMA etc. under Centre for professional development. Being in this industry for more than 25 years, the founder president decided to transfer the reins to a successor who has the potential and fire in the belly to take the institution’s legacy to new heights. In this process, he identified Mr. Nitin Anand as the successor based on evaluating his competencies and observing his performance in the initial years. During the succession process he trained Mr. Nitin for more than ten years and handed over the responsibility to him to run the institution so as to pursue the mission and vision of the organization. This case explains about how the succession process was carried out starting from identifying people for critical positions with required competencies. And also the case discusses succession planning strategies used, documenting and implementing the succession plans and evaluating the effectiveness of the succession Plan at various stages. The case discusses effective succession planning followed in the university. This case also demonstrates how good succession planning will help not only in the smooth transition of an organization but also helps it to grow and excel as per the founder’s Vision.
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Perspectiva - Vol IV (ISSN # 2394 9961, e ISSN: 2454-7034)

The love-hate relation with innovation – A case of Apple
Authors Aadithyaa and Vijay Prakash Misra
Abstract Someone rightly said, “Great things have humble beginnings”, so did Apple Inc. in the form of a small Los Altos garage where Ronald Wayne, Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs founded the then Apple Computer Company on 1st April 1976. Today, that Los Altos garage is designated as a historic site in The United States and Apple Inc. has become one of the world’s most valuable brands (Madeline Farber, 2017). This rise can be attributed to many factors like suitable business environment, strong management, good investments, innovations etc. In this case study we study the factor of innovation in isolation and its effect on the fortunes of the company
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The Regional Manager’s Revenge – A Modest Proposal
Authors Mohan Gopinath
Abstract This case is based on the events which followed when a senior Regional Manager of a multinational bank, Taiwan International Bank, put pressure on the union head in the branch in New Delhi to achieve ends which were not legitimate. The ends would however, have suited the Regional Manager, and to a certain extent, the union head. In the events described in the case, the aftermath almost led to the closure of the branch for a short period of time. It narrates the details of the interplay of personalities with different sets of values and how they tried to take advantage of existing situations. The case is based on real-life events which occurred in 2002, but the names of the characters and the bank have been disguised. The decision focus of the case centers on handling business ethics in an organization and how business ethics can be affected negatively if this is not done with maturity backed by experience.
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Necessity is the mother of invention – A case of rural entrepreneurship through ‘Laxmi asu’ machine for pochampally saris in India
Authors Dr. Prageetha G Raju
Abstract Innovations are required to develop new products, services, markets, reduce costs, improve efficiency, productivity, performance, quality, etc. The power of innovation is to create social and economic transformation. The present case is a depiction and interweaving of three things – necessity, mother, and invention. That’s right! The Laxmi Asu machine invented to weave Pochampally Saris by Mr. Chintakindi Mallesham, a resident of Nalgonda District of the present Telangana State. Prior to this new invention it would take 5-6 hours to make one sari with 5-6 saris a month; after the invention it takes 1.5 hour to make a sari and the productivity has gone up to 8-10 saris a month leading to reduced drudgery, increased productivity and better livelihood. This invention was born to relieve his mother, Laxmi from this painful drudgery. This case is the story of an innovation by a rural entrepreneur that created a social and economic transformation and a financial revolution in the Pochampally handloom sector. The information presented is based on published sources.
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Perspectiva - VOL V(2019)

Reliability Roadmap at 5 Stars Home Appliances
Authors Dr. Arijit Mitra
Abstract This case highlights how typically the reliability processes are followed in an Indian manufacturing context and what are the problems faced by organizations in doing so. Several reliability tools and software which are used in practice are also described in the case and author believes that such examples will develop the practical knowledge of the students about reliability. The teaching objective of the case is to make students understand the importance of reliability processes in a company, the approaches followed by the organizations and the problems faced by them while undergoing such processes. Suggestions for developing an improved reliability roadmap for the company is expected from the students with a consideration of the constraints that the company has.
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Can Innovation in Sustainability be a Sustainable Competitive Advantage?
Authors Mohd. Azmi Khan and Dr. Salma Ahmed
Abstract The car culture, that is the aspiration to own a car, is spreading at a rapid pace across the world. The number of car owners are increasing, be it in developed countries like the USA, the Europe, or even in emerging economies like India and China. The automobile industry has also witnessed changes all across the world. And what is fascinating to note is that these changes can be said to be similar or homogeneous with respect to demand of customer and the increasing desire for newer models, which is on the rise. The changes in demand have been for automotive and autonomous driving, electrification, connectivity and infotainment. And most importantly, globally there is a pressure for environmental requirements. Keeping these changes in perspective, Tesla Inc. (formerly Tesla Motors) has launched the first luxury electric car, the Roadster, in 2008. It received immense popularity and acceptance as public at large has become conscious of sustainability and climate change. However, the response has been from the elite class. It now wants to target the mass market. Being a new player in the automobile industry, with small capital base, a weak supply chain, it faces many challenges and how far it is able to fulfill its vision as a technologically innovative automobile company remains to be seen. Tesla Inc., the company has challenges in expanding the business despite being a market leader in electronic vehicle. The aim of the study is to analyze the transformation led by Tesla in the automobile industry in spite being younger than older market players. Further SWOT analysis of company’s present situation would be needed and in order to recommend the ways to mitigate weaknesses and threats to business, Tesla needs to frame its future strategy to remain in top and gain competitive advantage. That would be interesting to see whether Tesla, a small-time player would be able to ward off competitors and retain the competitive advantage that it now enjoys
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Gearing up for Changing Indian Consumers Buying Behavior: Dilemma of a Wedding Fashion Designer
Authors Snehal Chincholkar and Dr. Vandana Sonwaney
Abstract This case study is designed to discuss the paradigm shift of Indian retail industry and changing Indian consumer buying behavior by specifically concentrating on wedding apparel buying process. Presented through the dilemma of a fashion designer, this case is trying to analyze the current Indian retail trends and future of Indian retail Industry. In last few years, Indian retail industry witnessed some dynamic changes. The major factors responsible for these changes were foreign direct investment, developing infrastructure, high disposable income, brand awareness, changing consumption basket, emerging market of Tier-II and Tier-III cities. Aspirations of Indian consumers have changed because of media exposure and now Indian consumers are more knowledgeable and style conscious and also they select retailers according to their convenience, knowledge, occasion and availability. Through favorable environmental conditions, the apparel industry has got a major boost however demanding consumers are creating new challenges for retailers. What are these challenges? Doing business in India is easy or difficult? Do we need to understand Indian consumer buying behavior? Do they behave differently during wedding apparel shopping? Let’s try to understand.
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Unveiling the Truth
Authors Dr. Kirti Shivakumar, Prof. Ameet Kulkarni and Mr. Salil Joshi
Abstract Expert Engineering Enterprises was established in 1981. Today, it is looked upon as a responsible partner and an OEM supplier of Industrial Valves to several companies in India, Russia, East and South Africa. Though continual improvement was happening over the years, it was not done or recorded in a scientific manner. To address the challenges of the competitive business scenario and ensure sustainability, the management of Expert took a decision of introducing Kaizen in the year 2015, a method to encourage innovation and creativity amongst the employees. The company had always been innovative and had a system where employees of each section met every morning at 8.30 am. During the meeting, they discussed their day to day issues and themselves came up with suggestions or solutions to overcome the problem. This intervention was called Chintan. When Kaizen was introduced, the employees were trained in Kaizen through the discussions held during the Chintan intervention. Tools like fixed point photography, identifying 7 wastes etc. were used to generate possible ideas. Currently the firm focuses on continuous improvement rigorously and the employees have understood that Kaizen is an inevitable practice in the path of growth. The case focuses on the concept of Kaizen, its benefits, challenges in implementation and the way ahead for Expert. It also allows the reader to get a clear understanding of 5S and Kaizen. It can also be used to understand how the mandatory implementation of contributing to Kaizen has been fruitful to the organization.
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Kaizen – Implementation and Challenges at Expert Engineering Enterprises
Authors Dr. Meenakshi Verma and Dr. Anuj Verma
Abstract This case is about Maruti Suzuki’s Manesar Plant episode. It gives a detailed insight into what exactly happened on the fateful day. The General Manager (Human Resource) of Maruti Suzuki was burned to death in a large scale violence activity in the Manesar Plant. The event was allegedly triggered by a disciplinary issue with an employee which led to difference of opinion between the management and workers. The workers also made several other demands like pay parity between contractual employees and permanent employees which were not heeded by the management. The opening note of the case talks about how Suzuki set its strong foot hold in India which is followed by Maruti Suzuki’s Joint Venture and its pros and cons. Later, the case describes about how the cross-cultural differences between Indian Management Techniques and Japanese Management Techniques started affecting the work ethos at Maruti. The next aspect of the case is about step by step occurrence of the event. This case highlights, how a simple communication gap can lead to violence of this magnitude. When employees are not paid any heed to, when the employees are discriminated, when they are denied their basic rights, employees tend to take such drastic measures for their voices to be heard. Though Joint Ventures may sound good from an economic perspective, it becomes very challenging from socio-cultural perspective.
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Revenue Recognition from Gift Cards: What and How?
Authors Rajani Ramdas
Abstract This case deals with the financial statements’ implications issue and taxation issues from the revenue generated from gift cards. This is a fictitious case that deals with the problems faced by companies in recognizing the revenue generated from gift cards. The case revolves around a retail store who wants to introduce the concept of gift cards in their store. The case first talks about the benefits of introducing the concept of gift cards and in the latter part of the case it talks about the problems faced by the finance and accounts department in accounting for the revenue recognized form gift cards. The case is in the form of a story telling mode with a dilemma in the conclusion that has to be addressed by the store. The case requires students to practically apply the accounting principles in real life situations. The case is designed in such a way that the students will be able to apply the relevant accounting concepts to solve the issue. The case is more relevant because of the absence of a written rule or procedure for recording revenue from gift cards in India and moreover the concept is against the principal of the revenue recognition concept. Using this case, students will be able to understand the use of retailer-issued gift cards and also learn the accounting and taxation implications arising thereof. This case can be used to elucidate the application of accounting concepts and conventions especially revenue recognition concept.
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Perspectiva - VOL VI(2020)

Employee Referral Matters, It Really Does!
Authors Dr. Suruchi Pandey and Dr. Swati Vispute
The case study revolves around the research and analysis conducted by Rosalin, an HR employee of a consulting firm. She worked around the existing employee referral framework and its current statistics to analyze the prevailing gaps and prepares recommendations to solve the same. Employee referral is considered to be the best source of recruitment among the sources of recruitment available to sourcing team. For various reasons it does not work for many companies.
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Concentration on Risky Small and Mid-Cap Mutual Funds: Disaster Follows
Authors Cherian Varghese
Abstract It has always been a phenomenon that when market falls, investors in the stock market or market related mutual funds feel unhappy about their investments losing value. This will be more where investment productsrecommended carry a level of risk that is not appropriate to the risk profile of the investor. Asset allocation is supposed to be carried out in accordance with the risk profile of the investors. A well-diversified portfolio amongst debt and equity products in the proportion that matches the investor profile is the most appropriate approach.However, in Indian conditions where Wealth Management Services as a profession is not fully recognized by all corners, the asset allocation is being done more in an ad hoc manner and many of the Wealth Managers are not full-fledged professionals, for that matter. The following case is an instance where the asset allocation has not been done in its conventional style, either deliberately or accidentally. Surely, non- conventional style cannot be considered absolutely out of place. The approach of this Wealth Manager, who can also be considered the second protagonist in the following case study, is to design the allocation in a heuristic manner after a detailed analysis of the historical returns from equity mutual funds. He also understands that his products are riskier. He bets on the long-term and matches the time horizon more than depending solely on the profile-based analysis and asset allocation.
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Oriental Carpets: The Decision Dilemma
Authors Dr. Manoj Joshi, Nitin Shankar, Dharmendra Pandey, Dr. Komal Malik, Dr. A. Dhiraj
Abstract Oriental Carpets a sixth-generation family business that was established by Ashok Mohan Baranwal (AMB), the legacy was carried on by his grandson, Brij Mohan Baranwal (BMB), who later migrated to Madhosingh, a city in the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. This leadership legacy was followed by his grandsons, Chandra Mohan Baranwal (CMB) and later on by Devendra Mohan Baranwal (DMB). Oriental Carpets manufactures and exports hand knotted carpets and ‘durries’ (rugs). It supplies its products to countries in Europe and also to the United States of America, giving employment to a large number of people. The firm’s key operations and marketing strategy are being handled by Eshwar Mohan Baranwal (EMB) and Gagan Mohan Baranwal (GMB), the two sons of DMB. All business-related activities are discussed, handled and operated jointly by family members. The firm produces and sells world-wide, though its strategy is still undefined and future growth path unclear. The firm which has largely focused on exporting remains weak as a domestic player and this is where the conflict between Gagan and Eshwar arises. In a world that is fast changing, dominated by volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity (VUCA), does it make sense to focus on the global markets or develop a foothold in the domestic market, where the demand isstrong and growing?
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Perspectiva - VOL VII(2021)

Creation of a Vibrant Business Environment for Micro and Small Enterprises (Small Ticket Business) - A Case of Social Finance Ltd
Authors Mr. Praveen Madhavan and Mr. Pradeep K.V.
This case study is an attempt to facilitate the students to understand the process flow of easy finance facilities offered to small businesses in developing countries like India. The existing financial system, which is still insufficient to cater to the mass population of India, has loose ends wherein the small businesses are forced to source finance from unorganized sector with hefty interest rates. This study is prepared after closely observing and interviewing the management, employees and customers of a well-established non-banking finance company registered in India, having pan India presence. However, to keep the anonymity of the organisation a hypothetical name Social Finance Limited is given and the names of the officials in the case study are also changed. However, the figures representing the financials are presented from the published sources.
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Customer’s Preference Between Third Party UPI Apps and Banking Apps
Authors Ms. Devi S. Nair and Ms. Rinu Jayaprakash
Abstract
This case deals with the customer’s preference between 3rd Party UPI applications and Banking applications. This is a fictitious case that deals with the problems faced by customers in using banking app and 3rd party apps. The case revolves around two friends who were working in different firms and were discussing the issues related with the payment platforms. The case first talks about the banking applications, UPI apps and its benefits. The case is in the form of a conversation mode and thereafter a survey has been conducted among customers. The case requires students to practically apply the digital banking concepts in real life situations. It is designed in such a way that the students will be able to apply the relevant banking concepts to solve the issue.
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Subscription-Based Business Models: Are They Suited for Indian Cinema?
Authors Mr. Pardhasaradhi Madasu
Abstract
Developed economies have already experimented with ‘Subscription-Based Models,’ in the majority of the business sectors. The spread of the internet, mobile apps, and artificial intelligence (AI) usage have made the model more accessible and convenient to use. The first success stories of subscription-based models are Netflix in online movie distribution and Seasons in organic fruit and vegetable suppliers’ market. Netflix and Seasons are the classic examples of the revolution in subscription-based business models. Ever since the success of the subscription-based model of Netflix, the application of the concept has been deliberated in many other service industries, such as concerts, cab services, healthcare, and the cinema screening business. MoviePass, a Netflix-Style subscription model has popularized the concept among the cinemagoers. Even though MoviePass closed down the business, the model has encouraged many other players in cinema industry to modify the model and implement it slightly different. As of now, few alternatives to MoviePass are available in the US cinema market. The learnings from the disappointment of MoviePass and the experiences of current providers of subscription-based in cinema industry would be useful for the management of cinema houses in emerging markets like India.
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Perspectiva - VOL VII(2022)

A Restructuring and the Consequences
Authors Dr. Mohan Gopinath and Suprabha Bakshi.
The case deals with the changes made by a new CEO who had recently taken up the job in India in an international bank. The changes he made were in his own office but affected the four Regional Managers who reported to him. A short mention is made of the changes in the Indian banking scene at the beginning of the case and how these affected the Indian and international banks; the case describes events which happened in the early 1990s. The discussion point of the case is the management of change and how changes can lead to unforeseen consequences if the process of change is not thought through thoroughly and changes are made in a hurry. The importance of cross cultural sensitivity in terms of being courteous to people also comes out in the case as the CEO who was British had to tackle Indian managers which he did with great unpleasantness, along with the necessity of imparting this sensitivity to incoming international managers. (item 2 of the Excel sheet). But the significance of change management is the fulcrum on which the case rests.
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The Dean Who Left in a Hurry
Authors Dr. Mohan Gopinath
Abstract
This case study focuses on how the Chancellor of a university carried out his functions in order to obtain a high ranking in terms of the ranking of academic institutions for the university he headed. The Dean of the Business School, a constituent college of the university and a capable person, also became a part of the events and added her inputs to the events described in this case. The importance of culture, and how much this is critical in terms of an institution reaching and perhaps surpassing its strategic goals, are also highlighted. The discussion points of the case and the one around which it revolves are the importance of maintaining ethical standards in an academic institute and in running such an institute. This will of course apply equally to organizations in the corporate sector and so this case has wider ramifications in terms of its reach to students and academics and people from the corporates. Its value from the learning perspective will be of particular benefit to students who are on the verge of starting their careers as they will be given inputs into real life workings of an institute.
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Understanding the Water Footprint of the Urban Dweller
Authors Dr. Srividhya Raju Sridharan and Dr. Sudarsan. J.S
Abstract
“Future wars will be fought over water, So Save Every Drop”. A sticker carrying this slogan was hanging out loose from a dripping faucet near the society club house of Roseland Residency, a cooperative housing society in India’s IT hub, Pune. Mr. Raju Kulkarni has just taken over as society treasurer and one of the first bills to come up for sign off was the water tanker invoice. Being an environmental engineer by profession, the quantum of bill comes as a shock to Mr. Kulkarni. The society was compliant with the requirements for rain water harvesting and the city experienced normal rainfall in the year. Yet water was being purchased in huge quantities even in rainy season through tankers. Mr. Kulkarni knows that the solution to this conundrum lies in the understanding of water footprint and effective recycling. He needs to set about gathering data and presenting an effective solution to the society’s management committee.
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Netflix’s Growth Challenges in India
Authors Dr. Garima Ratna
Abstract
Netflix, Inc (Netflix), founded by two American entrepreneurs Reed Hastings (Hastings) and Marc Randolph in 1997, was a global provider of online streaming content and video rentals. The company began operating as a ‘rent-by-mail DVD service’ with a ‘pay-per-rental’ model. In 1999, the company began operating as an online entity and switched to subscriber-based model. As years progressed and internet services grew better in speed and penetration, Netflix began offering direct streaming services of select titles to its subscribers. In 2010, a major shift happened in the company’s positioning and Netflix became a streaming only entity. Right positioning, customer centric subscription packages, strategic deals and developing original content catapulted the company’s status in online streaming space. But slowing growth in US market prompted the company to seek lucrative pastures overseas. India with its vast population and impressive internet penetration beckoned Netflix. So, in 2016, Netflix forayed into India with subscription plans starting from $7.50 per month. In 2021, the company aspired to fetch ‘next 100 million subscribers’ from India. India did prove to be a lucrative market but a difficult one. There were challenges galore; stiff competition from local low-cost players being the most formidable. Moreover, global players like Amazon, with its better value and low-cost proposition seemed to undermine Netflix’s India ambitions. How should Netflix tackle them?
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AUTHOR GUIDELINES

  • The case should be original and on a business management situation. The case can be related to a business/ management situation in any management discipline.
  • The case can be based on either primary or secondary research with proper referencing throughout the document. The case needs to be backed by appropriate background information and cited sources.
  • The case should be accompanied with a well drafted teaching note.
  • The authors need to get approval from the organization, if it is applicable for their cases. The Approval form signed by the authorized representative of the organization needs to be submitted for publication of the case.
  • The case should not have been published anywhere else. The authors need to send the signed declaration form with the case.
  • The case should not have been published anywhere else. The authors need to send the signed Declaration form with the case.
  • Case research articles may also be considered for publication including articles using case study methodology, case teaching etc.
  • The length of the case/case article should be 3000-  5000 words, including exhibits, footnotes and references.
  • Case/teaching note/article should have a title page which should comprise of the Title, author names and affiliation, address, contact number of all the authors and email Ids of the authors. The corresponding author should be marked with asterisk*. Author names should not appear anywhere else in the document.
  • Teaching notes should be 3000-5000 words, and consist of a case summary/synopsis/abstract, learning objectives, assignment questions, suggested readings, teaching plan, and analysis.
  • Case research article should have an abstract of 250-300 words followed by 5-7 keywords and appropriate JEL classification codes.
  • The case and teaching note should be compulsorily checked for spelling and grammar. Please use British spellings.
  • For the case/ article title, use 14-size Times New Roman font, Bold, Sentence case formatting. For the main headings in the case, use 12-size Times New Roman font, bold.For subheadings, use 12-size Times New Roman font, bold and Italics.The body text should be in 12-size Times New Roman with single spacing. The footnotes should be in 9-size Times New Roman, italics for footnotes. Copyright statement should be in 8-size Times New Roman, italics. Exhibits should be in 10-size Times New Roman.
  • Cases should be written in past tense and teaching note may be written in present tense. Active voice is preferable.
  • Case should be substantiated with Exhibits. Mention the source of exhibits appropriately. All the exhibits should be put at the end of the case/teaching note. They should be in black and white. The exhibits should be in the table format or in spreadsheet format so that it is possible to edit. They should be numbered in roman letters like Exhibit I, Exhibit II etc. and should have a title. In the teaching note, please number them with a prefix TN like TN Exhibit I.
  • References should follow APA style for case study/case research articles.

Plagiarism Policy: We follow a strict Plagiarism Policy. Each case submission is checked with our dedicated software (Turnitin) to prevent any unethical practice.

Manuscript Submission

Soft copy of the cases/ research articles in Microsoft Word format has to be sent by email to perspectiva@sibm.edu.in.

EDITORIAL TEAM

Editor-in-Chief
Dr. Madhvi Sethi
Director, SIBM Bengaluru

Editorial Board

Prof. A Vidyasagar
Deputy Director, SIBM Bengaluru

Dr. Jonathan Marks,

Senior Lecturer,
Gordon Institute of Business Science,
University of Pretoria

Manipadma Datta,

Professor,
TERI School of Advanced Studies

Dr. Ram Kumar Kakani
Faculty, XLRI Jamshedpur

Dr. Fahim Youssofzai
Faculty, Royal Military College of Canada (Kingston, Ontario, Canada)

Dr. N.K. Chidambaran
Faculty, Gabelli School of Business, Fordham University, New York.

Dr. Geetanjali Saluja
Faculty, UTS Business School, University of Technology Sydney

Prof. Manoj Joshi
Faculty, Amity Business School

Editorial Team

Prof. Anuradha G
Faculty, SIBM Bengaluru

Dr. Vandita Dar
Faculty, SIBM Bengaluru

Dr. Semila Fernades
Faculty, SIBM Bengaluru

Prof. Lavina Sharma
Faculty, SIBM Bengaluru

Prof. Ravi Kumar
Faculty, SIBM Bengaluru

Dr. T Viswanathan
Faculty, SIBM Bengaluru

Dr. John Ben

Faculty, SIBM Bengaluru

Dr. Eliza Sharma
Faculty, SIBM Bengaluru

Prof. Saina Baby
Faculty, SIBM Bengaluru

Prof. Atish Dasgupta
Faculty, SIBM Bengaluru

Dr. M. Sathish

Faculty, SIBM Bengaluru

Dr. Swarna Lakshmi
Faculty, SIBM Bengaluru

Editorial Support
Ms. Vasundhra Singh
Research Assistant, SIBM Bengaluru
Students Research Committee, SIBM Bengaluru

PUBLICATION ETHICS & MALPRACTICE

PERSPECTIVA: A CASE RESEARCH JOURNAL (ISSN # 23949961, E-ISSN # 2454 – 7043

STATEMENT ON PUBLICATION ETHICS AND PUBLICATION MALPRACTICE

Perspectiva: A Case Research Journal is a double blind peer-reviewed journal. This statement spells out the ethical behaviour of all the parties involved in the act of publishing an article for this journal, i.e.: the author, the editors, the peer-reviewers and the publisher.

DUTIES OF EDITORS

Decision On the Publication of Articles
The Editor- In – Chief and the Members of the Editorial Board of Perspectiva are responsible for deciding which of the articles are accepted for publication after undergoing double blind peer review. Manuscripts shall be evaluated solely on their intellectual merit (academic rigor, originality, clarity and relevance to the journal’s scope)without regard to authors’ race, gender, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy. Decisions about publishing are not to be determined by government policies or for that matter any entity outside of the journal itself.

Confidentiality

The Editor-In-Chief and any editorial staff must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher, as is deemed fit.

Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest

Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used by anyone who has a view of the manuscript (while handling it) in his or her own research without the express written consent of the author. Editors should excuse themselves from considering manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest arising from competitive, collaborative or any other connection they may have with the author/s. In such cases other Editorial Board members can step in and handle the manuscript.

Ensuring of Double Blind Peer Review

The editors should ensure that the reviewers don’t know the author’s identity-  any identifying information will be stripped from the document before review, and the author/s too are not aware of the reviewers’ identity. Such double blind peer review would assist the reviewers in making editorial decisions, while editorial communications with the author may also assist the author in improving the paper. Reviewers’ comments to the editors are confidential and would be made anonymous before passing on to the author. The names of the reviewers would remain strictly confidential; with their identities known only to the Editor-In-Chief and the Editorial Board. While taking a final decision on whether or not to publish a manuscript the Editor-in-Chief may consult with other editors and/or the concerned reviewers.

Involvement and Cooperation in investigations

The Editorial Board is obligated to take necessary actions when ethical concerns are raised (plagiarism, copyright infringement or libel) with regards to a submitted manuscript or a published paper. Any kind of unethical publishing practice would be investigated irrespective of the time elapsed since the date of publishing. If on investigation ethical malpractice is proved, the journal is committed to publish a retraction, correction or an expression of concern as deemed appropriate

DUTIES OF REVIEWERS

Promptness

Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the assigned manuscript or unable to provide a prompt review should notify the Editor- In – Chief and excuse himself/herself from the review process.

Confidentiality

Manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to, or discussed with others except as authorized by the Editor- In – Chief.

Standards of Objectivity

Reviews should be conducted objectively. There shall be no personal criticism of the author. Reviewers should express their views clearly with supporting arguments.

Acknowledgment of Sources

Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that had been previously reported elsewhere should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the Editor- In- Chief and the Editorial Board member’s attention to any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which they have personal knowledge.

Confidentiality

Privileged information or ideas obtained through double blind peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage by the reviewers.

Conflict of Interest

Reviewers should not review manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.

DUTIES OF AUTHORS

Reporting Standards

Authors of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behaviour and are unacceptable.

Data Access and Retention

Authors may be asked to provide the raw data in connection with a paper for editorial review, and should be prepared to provide public access to such, if practicable, and should in any event, be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time after publication.

Originality and Plagiarism

Authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others, this must be appropriately cited or quoted.

Multiple Publications

An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behaviour and is unacceptable.

Acknowledgment of Sources

Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. Authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work.

Authorship of The Paper

Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be acknowledged or listed as contributors.

The Corresponding Author

The Corresponding Author is the author responsible for communicating with the journal for publication. The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included on the paper, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.

Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest

All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.

Peer Review

Authors are obliged to participate in the peer review process and have to promptly respond to editors’ requests for clarifications, access to raw data as well as required consents and copyright permissions. In case of a first decision of “revisions necessary”, authors should respond systematically to reviewers’ comments, in a timely manner, revising and re-submitting their manuscript to the journal

Fundamental Errors in Published Works

When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the Editor – In – Chief/Managing Editor and cooperate with the editors to retract or correct the paper.

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